Black solid, powdered solid
Carbon Black, Lamp Black
25 kg paper bag
Carbon black, found in various forms like acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black, and thermal black, is a residue left after the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum fuels such as coal, ethylene cracking tar, FCC tar, and, to a lesser extent, vegetable oil. Comprising over 96% amorphous carbon and trace elements like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur, concentrated on the surface, it takes the form of a finely divided black pellet or powder. Oxidized carbon black can contain up to 15% oxygen.
The characteristics of carbon black can be tailored for specific applications, resulting in a diverse range influenced by production methods and process parameter variations. It is composed of chain-type or botryoidal aggregates formed from small, mostly spherical particles during production. These aggregates combine to form large agglomerates in the reactor. Conductive carbon blacks, distinguished by their high specific surface area and extensively branched aggregates, are utilized in applications like antistatic coatings for plastics.
Hydrocarbons, such as oil or natural gas, are utilized as input materials in processes involving partial combustion or thermal breakdown, resulting in the creation of carbon black. The classification of carbon black is determined by the production technique, as its properties vary based on the method employed. The term "furnace black" specifically denotes carbon black produced through the furnace process, currently the most widely adopted method, setting it apart from carbon black generated through alternative methods. In this procedure, carbon black is produced by partially combusting coal or petroleum oil as a raw material (feedstock oil) in high-temperature gases. Due to its high yield and precise control over attributes like particle size and structure, this method is favored for mass production.
In tires and other rubber products, carbon black serves primarily as both a colorant and a reinforcing filler. Anti-vibration components in the automotive industry commonly utilize natural rubber enhanced by the addition of carbon black. It is employed in various formulations with diverse rubber types to alter the tire's performance characteristics.
Paint and Coating Industry
Carbon black is a common component in inks, paints, toners, and resin coloring. Its effectiveness as both a coloring agent and a black pigment is well-established. Specialized carbon blacks find application in paints and coatings for achieving translucent coloring, tinting white and colorful coatings (such as decorative paints), and producing mass tone colors.
Carbon black is widely utilized as a food coloring and finds extensive applications in solvent recovery, controlling odors in industrial waste, and treating drinking water.
Carbon black, functioning as an electrically conductive material, is employed in various applications such as floppy disks, fibers, and antistatic coatings. Additionally, it serves as an antistatic agent and filler in automotive gasoline caps and pipelines.